Bio: (1928-2013) American sociologist. Janet Abu-Lughod has taught at several American universities as well as at the University of Cairo. She conducted several programs of urban studies and dealt with the history of Middle Eastern cities, especially the history of Cairo. With the book Before European Hegemony: The World System A. D. 1250-1350 (1989), she contributed to the development of World-system theory, studying the emergence of the world system before the emergence of European hegemony. She pointed out that the Mongol Empire contributed to the unification of China, India, Muslim countries, and Europe into a single political and economic system. This world system consisted of eight subsystems, which were gathered around three main centers - Western Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East. In recent publications, Abu Lughod primarily researches American cities, their histories, and their global influence in the world.